When your friend or loved one has undergone a hip replacement surgery, as a caregiver, you will play an important role in his/her recovery. There are various aspects you need to be aware of to ensure the safety, comfort and recovery of the patient. Some of these include:
Some of the changes you would need to make around the house include:
- Pick up rugs lying around, secure loose carpets and place carpet on slippery surfaces.
- Place all items that you regularly use well within reach.
- Ensure that there is good lighting throughout the house and avoid floor hazards such as small objects lying around, pets, cords and uneven surfaces.
- Do not allow the patient to lift heavy weights for about 3 months after the surgery.
- Rearrange furniture to provide more walking space to accommodate a cane or walker.
- Un-tuck bedding in order to make it easier for the patient to move in and out of bed.
Some of the factors you may have to keep in mind with regard to the patient’s changes in bodily functions include:
- The patient may have a poor appetite, so ensure that they take in more fluids until their desire for solid food increases.
- The patient may have difficulties in sleeping, but do not allow him/her to sleep too long during the day.
- Provide the patient with laxatives or stool softeners to combat constipation, which is a common side effect of certain pain medications.
- You may be advised to give your patient blood thinners to avoid blood clots in the leg.
Patients are prescribed special stockings to compress the veins in the legs, which will help reduce swelling and lower the chances of blood clot formation. Factors that you need to be aware of with regard to these stockings include:
- Make sure the patient wears the stockings continuously, removing them twice a day, for one or two hours.
- If swelling persists, help the patient raise the leg above heart level on pillows, while lying down.
- Inform the physician when pain or swelling in the legs increases.
Some of the instructions that you will be given with regard to incision care include:
- Keep the incision dry and covered with a light dressing until the staples are removed.
- Inform the physician if there is increased redness, drainage, odour or pain around the incision.
- Inform the surgeon immediately if the patient’s temperature rises above 100.5°F.
Controlling Pain and Discomfort
Caring for the patient will include various methods of helping the patient control post-surgical pain.
- Pain medications should be given at least 30 minutes before physical therapy.
- You can encourage the patient to gradually reduce pain medications.
- Use ice for about 20 minutes every hour to control pain.
- Encourage the patient to change position every 45 minutes.
Recognizing and Preventing Complications
A few complications, such as dislocation, blood clots and pulmonary embolism, can be identified and prevented in the following ways:
- Dislocation: This can be identified by severe pain, shortening of leg or difficulty in walking. This can be prevented by avoiding crossing the legs, twisting and bending the hip past 90 degrees.
- Blood clots: This can be identified by swelling in the ankle, calf or thigh, and heat, pain and tenderness in the groin, back of knee or calf. This can be prevented by using compression stockings, blood thinners and walking.
- Pulmonary embolism: A blood clot formed in a leg vein can break away and travel to the lungs causing pulmonary embolism. This is identified by sudden chest pain, rapid breathing, shortness of breath, sweating and confusion. It can be prevented with anticoagulant medications, compression stockings and physical activity which can help reduce blood clots and speed up the recovery process.